The Republic of Yemen is located in Western Asia, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea to the south, and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory includes over 200 islands, the largest of which is Socotra, about 354 km to the south of mainland Yemen. It is the only state in the Arabian Peninsula to have a purely republican form of government. Yemeni unification took place on 22 May 1990, when North Yemen was united with South Yemen, forming the Republic of Yemen. The population of Yemen is estimated at 29.1 million in 2016. According to UNDP's latest Human Development Report 2016, Yemen's HD index was ranked 168 out of 188 countries in 2015.
During 2011, the widespread violence in Yemen led the UN Security Council to adopt a Resolution No. 2014 on 21 October 2011 which called for immediate cessation of violence, and political engagement and peacebuilding. The GCC facilitated the political reconciliation process which led to the signing of an agreement on 23 November 2011. The reconciliation process led to a GCC- supported transition agreement and a Government of National Reconciliation was formed. The transition Government is entrusted with fostering political reconciliation, framing of the new constitution, implementing short-term economic stabilization measures, and laying foundations for a medium-term economic recovery program.