Pakistan joined the IsDB on 12 August 1974 as a founding member. Pakistan's capital subscription currently stands at ID 1,285.6 million (2.54% of IsDB total subscribed capital). The Islamic Republic of Pakistan emerged as an independent sovereign state on 14 August 1947. Pakistan covers 796,095 km2. The current population is estimated at 197.3 million (2017), ranking the sixth most populous country in the world and second among the Islamic Development Bank member countries. It is the 33rd-largest country in the world, spanning 881,913 square kilometers (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman. Pakistan has substantial natural resources, fertile land in a variety of climatic zones, rich biodiversity, and a young population, underscoring the potential for rapid development. Development has, however, been uneven and below potential. Periods of high growth have been short, partly reflecting external economic shocks, incomplete implementation of economic reforms, natural hazard-related disasters, political uncertainty, and domestic security challenges.